17th century poetry other than Milton

17th century poetry other than Milton

Metaphysical poetry
-Term coined by Samuel Johnson to describe certain British poets during the 17th century.
-Not an actual school or proper movement, but rather a term used to group together poets of the time who wrote with similar poetic style.
-Poets often included John Donne, George Herbert, Andrew Marvell, Henry Vaughan, and sometimes Abraham Cowley.
-Metaphysical poets shared common characteristics in exploring the concerns of their time.
-They heavily employed similar uses of wit (conceit), stylistic maneuvers, inventive metaphors, far-fetched similes and hyperbolic abstractions.
-Discussed the phenomena around them by use of strange comparisons of things that seemed very unalike.
-These extended comparisons were used to describe the changing sciences and technologies of the era, and the corrupt, immoral society that was emerging.
-Diverged from the classic, gentle style of the age, which included ideas of courtly love, images of nature and allusions to mythology.
-Reflected on personal life, spirituality and sexuality in a very intellectual and analytic way.

Cavalier Poetry
-Poets were named Cavaliers for their loyalty to Charles I as opposed to Roundheads, who gave their support to British Parliament.
-Also called Cavaliers for their lofty and arrogant view of life.
-Used more straightforward expression compared to metaphysical poetry.
-Poets included Ben Johnson, Robert Herrick, Richard Lovelace, and Sir John Suckling.
-Cavalier poets commonly used expressive language that evoked a highly individual personality.
-Focused on day-to-day concerns and addressed the minor pleasures and sadness of life.
-This style of poetry embraced life in a very celebratory and lively style.
-Poets avoided subjects that may have seemed too intense (religion, issues of the soul)
-Subjects and circumstances were illustrated in a much more realistic style.
-The mistress was no longer seen as the flawless chaste Goddess figure. She could be addressed in a straightforward fashion, instead of being wooed with dramatic emotions.
-Cavalier poets often wrote short, lyric poems that were frankly erotic.
-Valued elegance and were part of a more refined culture that embraced day-to-day humanity.
-A major theme included Carpe Diem, which emphasized the importance of seizing the day and making the most out of every moment.
-Often times carpe diem was used by arguing that mistresses should accept the advances and interests of men because time was fleeting and their youth should be taken advantage of.

Notable Works

John Donne (1572-1631)
-The Flea
-The Sun Rising
-The Good Morrow
-Elegy 19. To His Mistress Going To Bed

Henry Vaughan (1621-1695)
-The Retreat

Andrew Marvell (1621-1678)
-To His Coy Mistress
-The Nymph Complaining For The Death Of Her Fawn
-The Definition of Love

Ben Jonson (1572-1637)
-On My First Daughter
-On My First Son
-On Lucy, Countess Of Bedford

Richard Lovelace (1618-1657)
-The Grasshopper
-To Lucasta, Going To The Wars

Robert Herricks (1591-1674)
-Upon The Loss Of His Mistress
-To The Virgins, To Make Much of Time
-Corinna’s Going A-Maying

Norton Anthology English Literature, 8th Edition

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